Time Domain Reflectrometry (TDR) is a localization technique for open and short circuits.
It can also estimate a circuit impedence. An electrical signal is injected into the circuit. The analysis of its reflection at the electrical defect gives information about the type of defect as well as its location.
One of the few techniques able to localize complete open circuits
Short circuit localization on any type of sample, even if in 3D
Characteristic impedence measurement